The Common Program of the People's Republic of China 1949-1954

Introduction....


Fishery....



There are 3 types of fisheries: deep-sea, inshore, and inland. The deep-sea fishing is not highly developed, most vessels even don’t go so far as the edge of the continental shelf. Coastal fishing is very important but is not systematically developed. Inland fisheries can be found in lakes, rivers, canals, and ponds. In western China, the fish resources have become virtually exhausted. The inland fisheries are less important than the sea fisheries.
"Although fisheries have a long history in China, they were kept in their original form and on a very limited scale until the end of the 1950s. In 1949, the total production of aquatic products in China was only 4.48  105 tons, of which the production of aquaculture was less than 1.0  105 tons and the production value was only 150 million yuan, accounting for 0.6% of the total agricultural production value [6]. From 1949 to 1957, the fisheries in China were in a stage of restoration and development....In 1950, the total production of the aquaculture industry was 7.6  104 tons in China, accounting for only 8.6% of the total aquatic products "
Fig. 34.1: Fisheries productions in China, 1950-1954
Source: Jia Jiansan and Chen Jiaxin (2001). Sea farming and sea ranching in China. https://www.fao.org/3/y2257e/y2257e04.htm#fnB3 Table 3
In 1950, very few of the existing 78 000 fishing boats were equipped with diesel engines and marine capture fisheries produced 546 000 mt only, from 1951 onwards the number of powered fishing vessels increased rapidly. However, sea farming/ranching production was still a small fraction of both marine capture fisheries and total productions (See Fig. 34.1). More than ten marine plants and animals (incl. four seaweed, five molluscs, one shrimp and one fish species) were traditionally farmed in China for the last few hundred years, however total annual production was small, amounting to less than 10 000 mt because of the low efficiency of the methods used and their dependence on wild seed and natural substrates.
The government gives financial assistance in the form of cash loans for the purchase of boats, tackle, etc. Fish markets are established in Qingdao, Shanghai, Yantai, Ninghsien, Wusih, and Yongjia. Freight charges for carriage are lowered, salt prices are reduced and storage facilities are made profitable. Robinson (1956) concludes "It is apparent that the industry, formerly unorganized, decentralized and unscientific, is being unified, centralized and modernized"
The exclusive economic zone of the People's Republic of China is the area adjacent to and beyond the territorial sea of the People's Republic of China, extending as far as 200 nautical miles measured from the baseline that is used for calculating the breadth of the territorial sea.
Fig. 34.2: Catches by EEZ by the fleets of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.3: Catches by EEZ by commercial groups of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.4: Catches by EEZ by fishing sectors of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage
Fig. 34.5: Catches by EEZ by Gear by the fleets of PRC 1950-1954

Source: https://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/fishing-entity/31?chart=catch-chart&dimension=eez&measure=tonnage&limit=10
Pauly Daniel and Le Manach Frédéric (2015). Tentative adjustments of China's marine fisheries catches (1950-2010)
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Measure in tonnage

Besides fishery, sea farming and ranching exist in China. In 1952, for the first time kelp was grown and harvested on an artificial substrate built in the form of rafts. The Chinese government became increasingly interested in supporting research on marine fishery resources and several reports were published until the 1960s and issued in 1951, 2 directives "Temporary Fishery Bylaw for the Mid South Region" and the "Temporary Regulations on the Reproduction and Protection of Aquatic Plants and Animals in the Mid South Region". To improve the knowledge of fishery the first university of fisheries in China was founded in Shanghai 1952.
Fig. 34.2: Production of Japanese kelp, 1946 -1958
Source: Jia Jiansan and Chen Jiaxin (2001). Sea farming and sea ranching in China. https://www.fao.org/3/y2257e/y2257e04.htm#fnB3 Table 10
29-04-1954 Notice of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Internal Affairs on Strengthening the Relief Work for Fishermen

Irrigation...


Fig. 34.3: Irrigation infrastructure in China 1949–1952
Source: Wen (2021). Page 89
*10,000 Renminbi **Enlarged irrigated areas 10,000 Mu ***Irrigation canals over 10,000 Mu
"During the restoration of the national economy, irrigation was a crucial component of infrastructural investment, second only to transportation and communication (...). During 1949–1952, the total investment in agriculture, forestry and irrigation was 1.03 billion RMB, 13.14% of the total infrastructure investment, most of which was used in irrigation construction." In 1950, a large-scale irrigation construction started to control the Huai River. It resulted in a reduction in flooded areas of 65% compared to 1950. In October 1951, work started on the Upper Yongding River. Like the land reform, the construction of irrigation constructions was a tool to mobilize rural areas. The construction of the Huai River irrigation mobilized 220,000 workers, the construction of the Guangting Reservoir in the Yongding river needed 40,000 laborers, and works in the Jingjiang needed more then 300,000 workers. During these construction works the state had to deal with large frauds and carelessness. Old and defective materials were used and for example, "In 1952, the total disbursement incurred by the Henan Province in Shanghai in procuring labour and equipment for the River Huai project amounted to over 50 billion yuan (old RMB). Of this, the amount cheated and stolen by vicious merchants in Shanghai had been up to a dozen billions yuan." 06-05-1953 Central Flood Control Headquarters Instructions on Flood Control in 1953
Huaihe River

Forestry...


Forestery

Animal husbandry...


Notes Documents...


Hu (2021). Pages 64-65, 67 [↩] [Cite]
Robinson (1956). Page 166 [↩] [Cite]
Wen (2021). Page 89 [↩] [Cite]
Wen (2021). Pages 140-141 [↩] [Cite]

Chapter 4 of Common Program